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I simplified such problems to 5 elements: a number, a percent, and the words "what", "is", and "of". My kids learned to form their questions using those elements, and then simply replaced those elements with math functions. "What" or "how many" is the answer, "is" is the equals sign, and "of" means to multiply. At first, I simplify the language so the substitutions are literal, keeping the numbers in the same order they appear in the problem and using my language. I gradually change to keeping the original language.

So I would simply your first example into "18% of 45 goats is how many goats". That would read into "18% (of) 45 (is) (how many)". With the substitutions it becomes 18% (times) 45 (equals) (the answer), and finally 0.18x45=G.

I would simplify your second example into "130% increase in dolls is 1610". That would read into 130% (of) (what number) (is) 1610, which becomes 130% (times) (a number) (equals) 1610, or 130%xD=1610, which has to be solved for D, so D=1610/1.3.

As long as they can construct a verbal question using those words, they can solve it by literally replacing the code words.

Shannon, wife to long time sweetheart Gary, mom to DS(24), DS(21) and DD(19)

*No trees were harmed in the making of this post. However, an untold number of electrons were severely inconvenienced.*